1 Spiritualism
Spiritualism is the belief that the spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.


2 Britanicca: Spiritualism

Spiritualism, in religion, a movement based on the belief that departed souls can interact with the living. Spiritualists sought to make contact with the dead, usually through the assistance of a medium, a person believed to have the ability to contact spirits directly.

3 BBC: Spiritualism

The Modern Spiritualist movement dates from 1848 when the Fox sisters of Hydesville, New York produced knocking sounds that were alleged to be messages from a spirit.

4 National Spiritualist Association of Churches (NSAC)

Spiritualism is a religion and philosophy of life focused on joy, harmony, and a fear-free understanding of the continuity of life.


The Spiritualist Movement -- From the Beginning to Today


The Fox Sisters and the Rap on Spiritualism

7 The Guardian

The psychology of spiritualism: science and seances

8 First Spiritual Temple

What is Spiritualism?